The Science of Women


Fibroids (or leiomyoma or myomata) are the most common growth found in the womb. They resemble meatball like protrusions in the womb. Treatment is only needed when they cause symptoms.

Ovarian Cysts

Ovarian cysts are collection of fluid, blood or sometimes tissue, inside the ovary. Surgery is advised when cysts are large and cause symptoms.

Heavy and Irregular Menstruation

Every women will experience heavy or irregular menstruation in her lifetime. It is advisable to see a specialist when the abnormal menstruation persists for more than two months.

Painful Periods - Endometriosis - Adenomyosis

Painful periods are most often caused by Endometriosis, which is a condition where menstruation happens outside the womb causing inflammation and pain.


Polyps are common findings on health screening. They are also a common cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Most polyps (>90%) are non-cancerous.


Getting an ASCUS result from the PAP smear is very common. Often it is benign and will resolve without treatment. Read more about ASCUS PAP Smear here.

Trying to Get Pregnant

For most couples trying to have a baby, 60% will conceive after 3 months, 75% after 6 months and 85% after 1 year. By 2 years, 95% of couples would have achieved a pregnancy.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is the most common cause of infrequent menstruation. It is a metabolic condition with hormonal disturbances, polycystic ovaries and insulin resistance.

Vaginal Discharge & Itch

Disturbing vaginal discharge and itch are poor predictors of sexually transmitted disease. Read about the treatment and prevention here.

Tamoxifen & Uterine Cancer

Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Tamoxifen therapy effectively reduces the risk of breast cancer recurrence. This is associated with a small risk of uterine cancer.

Hormone Replacement Therapy

Read about the benefits of hormone replacement therapy. Understand the risks to choose the right option.

Common Women's Conditions

Heavy menstruation, bloatedness and pain, the three most common women's complains are discussed here, with the latest in surgical treatment by Dr Anthony Siow.

Endometriosis - Recent Advances 2023

Latest Endometriosis research reveals it is more than just menstruation outside the uterus. Analysis by Network Meta-Analysis provides new insight to effective medical treatment.

Endometriosis Forum 2023

Early diagnosis of Endometriosis reduces pain and suffering and improves quality of life. Long term treatment with Dienogest has been shown to be safe and effective.


Hysterectomy is a surgery to remove the womb. Find out more about how the surgery can be done with the fastest recovery

Ovarian Cancer Screening

Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death in many countries. The lifetime risk of a woman developing ovarian cancer is about 1.4%. Read about the various strategies to help diagnose ovarian cancer early.